Crafting in Minecraft is a method which you use to combine blocks and made tools or other stuffs for easier game play. For crafting, you must move item from your inventory to a crafting grid. You must arrange items in pattern to get a proper tool or different item. Items you can place vertically or horizontally. From your inventory you have access to 2×2 crafting grid. For 3×3 crafting grid you must create a crafting table.
Every item have durability. A little bar show you how much you can use your tool or item. Proper use of tools can help, you must know which tool is for what. Axe is for stone, you cant fighting with a shovel, you must have sword and you can dig with a sword etc. Wood have 60 uses, stone 132, gold 33, iron 251, diamond is the best with 1562 uses. At this images you can find out how to combine materials in simple tools.